This article tells us about a new study of sentencing disparities (Science Daily Buy elidel cream without prescription, , 5/25/10). Sure enough, as we've seen before, males are judged more harshly than are females by pretty much everyone in the criminal justice system. The only exception to the rule seems to be female judges. Those are some of the findings of Angela S. Ahola of Stockholm University in her Ph.D, find cheap elidel cream. Best price elidel cream, dissertation in psychology.
In her study of simulated short criminal cases, elidel cream india, Best price for elidel cream, Angela S. Ahola shows that gender and appearance affect our judgments of personality, approved elidel cream pharmacy, Discount elidel cream online, occupation, morals, elidel cream us, Buy elidel cream generic, and reliability and create a frame of reference for our behavior. Among other things, it was shown that judges and lay assessors both assessed and judged accused individuals of the same gender as themselves more severely than the opposite gender, buy elidel cream without prescription. On the other hand, elidel cream online cheap, Cheap elidel cream from uk, prosecutors, lawyers, buy elidel cream canada, Elidel cream for order, police officers, and law students, elidel cream overnight delivery, Elidel cream online without prescription, regardless of their own gender, evaluated male defendants more harshly than women defendants, order cheap elidel cream. Buy elidel cream pills, What's more, among female members of this category, purchase elidel cream no rx, Buy cheapest elidel cream, that is, those without a convicting role in the legal process, cost of elidel cream, Elidel cream cheapest price, differences were seen in their evaluations depending on the looks of the accused.
This previous study of over 70,000 cases in the federal criminal system in the United States found that men received harsher sentences than women within the same categories of offenses, elidel cream no rx, Drug elidel cream, even when variables such as criminal history were corrected for (Journal of Law and Economics, April, find cheap elidel cream online, Drug elidel cream online purchase, 2001). In fact, the amount by which sentences for males exceeded that of females was exactly the same as the amount by which sentences for blacks exceeded those of whites. That gives a perspective on the seriousness of the problem, buy elidel cream us. Elidel cream non prescription, Ahola found that judges tend to judge their own sex more harshly than they do the opposite sex. So male judges are likely to give men harsher sentences than are female judges. That suggests that the predominance of male judges contributes at least somewhat to the harsher sentences given to males who have been convicted or who've pled guilty to a criminal offense. Perhaps another way of saying that is that male judges still bring chivalrous attitudes to the job of sentencing women but obviously not to that of sentencing men.
And it's not only those in the criminal justice system that are affected, elidel cream buy, Elidel cream uk, according to Ahola's study.
Buy elidel cream without prescription, A study of eyewitnesses to a fictive crime shows that male perpetrators are judged more severely than equally violent female perpetrators. If two weeks goes by after the witnessing of the crime, order elidel cream no rx, Buy elidel cream in us, gender plays an even greater role. A man will be judged even more sternly than a woman, canadian pharmacy elidel cream, Cheapest elidel cream, which means that when our memory does not serve, we tend to remember more in accordance with the image, buy elidel cream internet, Order elidel cream, or stereotype, we have in our minds.
That's a point I've made in other areas and bears repeating. In countless different ways, elidel cream no rx required, Order elidel cream from canada, in popular culture, the news media, cheap elidel cream online, Canada elidel cream, children's books, education, elidel cream prescription, Buy cheap elidel cream online, etc., we have, for a long time now, diligently created the myth of the dangerous, irresponsible, incompetent man. And people have learned the lesson so that men are expected to conform to the stereotype. The nature of stereotyping (or mythmaking) is that it is remarkably resistant to facts. So it doesn't matter if fathers make perfectly good parents, the myth of the bad dad controls much of our thinking and things like custody decisions reflect it.
Now it turns out that the same is true, not only among police, prosecutors and judges. It's also true in casual observers. That's what explains Ahola's findings that "male perpetrators are judged more severely than equally violent female perpetrators." Again, the fact that the violence observed was equally severe whether committed by the man or the woman, becomes irrelevant to the observer. He/she judges the man more harshly, not due to the facts of the case but due to the myths of male brutality inculcated over several decades by many sources that are pleased to misrepresent the truth about masculine behavior.
Supposedly, sentencing guidelines which took substantial discretion away from judges, would reduce discrimination against men, blacks and hispanics, but the 2001 study debunked that. In fact, sentencing disparities survived imposition of the guidelines virtually intact even though the guidelines themselves make clear that things like race and gender are not to be considered in deciding criminal penalties. And that, of course, once again suggests that what Angela Ahola found is true. Even when limited by sentencing guidelines, judges still relied on (probably unconscious) preconceptions about race and gender in sentencing decisions.
The primary conclusion of the 2001 study was that,
[A]fter including more exhaustive controls than any previous study, large differences in the length of sentence exist on the basis of race, gender, education, income, and citizenship. These disparities occur in spite of explicit statements in the guidelines that these characteristics should not affect the sentence length.
Thanks to Marc for both the new and the older study.
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